help  | faq  | software  | ARAPORT

Gene : AOX1A A. thaliana

Gene ID  ? AT3G22370
Brief Description  alternative oxidase 1A  Source: Araport11 (06/2016).
Is Obsolete?  false
Computational Description  ? alternative oxidase 1A (AOX1A); FUNCTIONS IN: alternative oxidase activity; INVOLVED IN: oxidation reduction, cellular respiration, response to cold, response to stress, mitochondria-nucleus signaling pathway; LOCATED IN: mitochondrion; EXPRESSED IN: 26 plant structures; EXPRESSED DURING: 14 growth stages; CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: Alternative oxidase (InterPro:IPR002680); BEST Arabidopsis thaliana protein match is: alternative oxidase 1B (TAIR:AT3G22360.1).  Source: TAIR, Jun 30, 2015.
Curator Summary  ? Encodes AOX1a, an isoform of alternative oxidase that is expressed in rosettes, flowers, and root. The alternative oxidase of plant mitochondria transfers electrons from the ubiquinone pool to oxygen without energy conservations. It is regulated through transcriptional control and by pyruvate. Plays a role in shoot acclimation to low temperature. Also is capable of ameliorating reactive oxygen species production when the cytochrome pathway is inhibited. AOX1a also functions as a marker for mitochondrial retrograde response.  Source: TAIR, Jun 30, 2015.
Name  ? alternative oxidase 1A
  • synonyms:
  • hyper-sensitivity-related 3,
  • AtHSR3,
  • HSR3,

Locus History Displayer

Publication Counts Displayer

22 GeneRIFs (Gene References Into Functions)

Data Source: NCBI

Annotation PubMed Id
A 93 base pair portion necessary for induction was identified in the AtAOX1a promoter. 16027972
AOX not only functions to prevent excess reactive oxygen species formation in whole tissues under stressful environmental conditions but also affects metabolism through more pervasive effects, including some that are extramitochondrial. 16299170
a microarray study using an anti-sense line showed AOX1a influences outside mitochondria, particularly in chloroplasts and on several carbon metabolism pathways 16299171
A variety of Cys(II) substitutions constitutively activated AtAOX1a, indicating that neither the catalytic site nor, unlike at Cys(I), charge repulsion is involved. 16457775
These results indicate that photo-oxidative stress by excess light is involved in the regulation of respiratory gene expression and the modulation of respiratory properties, especially the AOX up-regulation. 18296449
AOX1a plants have a greatly altered stress response even when mitochondria or the mitochondrial electron transport chain are not the primary target of the stress and that AOX1a plays a broad role in determining the normal redox balance in the cell 18424626
AOX is a necessary component in antioxidant defence mechanisms and for the control of a balanced metabolism. 18507803
ABI4 plays a central role in mediating mitochondrial retrograde signals to induce the expression of AOX1a. 19482916
AOX can play a critical role in cell re-programming under salinity stress. 19941623
When aox1a mutant seedlings were grown under a high-light condition, photobleaching was more evident in the mutant than the wild-type plants. 20716069
These results suggest that AOX plays an important role in rapid acclimation of the respiratory chain to sHL, which may support efficient photosynthetic performance. 21251020
AOX and CET-PSI participate together in optimizing plant growth under conditions with elevated light intensity. [AOX1A] 21707657
The ability of AOX1a and AOX2 to substitute for PTOX in the correct physiological and developmental contexts is a striking example of the capacity of a mitochondrial protein to replace the function of a chloroplast protein. 22534126
These results indicate that AOX is important for optimizing rates of photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation in response to rising CO(2) concentration. 22848123
RAO2/Arabidopsis NAC domain-containing protein17 (ANAC017) as a direct positive regulator of AOX1a. Plants with mutated rao2/anac017 were more stress sensitive. 24045017
Arabidopsis plants deficient in AOX1a were unable to sustain photosynthesis under high light as is the case in WT plants. 24560882
Foliar NO3 (-) assimilation was enhanced in both aox1a and ucp1 compared with the wild-type, suggesting that foliar NO3 (-) assimilation is probably driven by a decreased capacity of mAET and an increase in reductant within the cytosol. 24799562
Overexpression of AOX1a reduced mitochondrial ROS production by maintaining the mitochondrial electron flux, and alleviated subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase-3-like activation in Al-induced programmed cell death. 24863436
PP2A-B'gamma physically interacts with the cytoplasmic form of aconitase and PP2A-B'gamma impacts reactive oxygen species homeostasis by controlling the abundance of specific alternative oxidase isoforms, AOX1A and AOX1D, in leaf mitochondria. 25307043
The authors propose a working model where AOX1a acts early in the response to Cd and activates or maintains a mitochondrial signalling pathway impacting on cellular antioxidative defence at the post-transcriptional level. 25743159
Phosphate deprivation increased NO production in WT roots, and the AOX level and the capacity of the alternative pathway to consume electrons in WT seedlings. 26163703
AOX1A plays a significant role in sustaining the chloroplastic redox state and energization to optimize photosynthesis by regulating cellular redox homeostasis and ROS generation when electron transport through the COX pathway is disturbed at complex III. 26292995


Sequence Feature Displayer

Gene Structure Displayer

J Browse Displayer

Overlapping Features Displayer

12 Flanking Regions

Flank size: from most upstream transcription start site, or most downstream transcription stop site

Region Name Flank Size Direction Length Gene Included? Chromosome Location
AT3G22370 0.5kb upstream 0.5kb upstream 2726   true Chr3: 7906021-7908746
AT3G22370 0.5kb upstream 0.5kb upstream 500   false Chr3: 7906021-7906520
AT3G22370 0.5kb downstream 0.5kb downstream 2726   true Chr3: 7906521-7909246
AT3G22370 0.5kb downstream 0.5kb downstream 500   false Chr3: 7908747-7909246
AT3G22370 1.0kb upstream 1.0kb upstream 3226   true Chr3: 7905521-7908746
AT3G22370 1.0kb upstream 1.0kb upstream 1000   false Chr3: 7905521-7906520
AT3G22370 1.0kb downstream 1.0kb downstream 3226   true Chr3: 7906521-7909746
AT3G22370 1.0kb downstream 1.0kb downstream 1000   false Chr3: 7908747-7909746
AT3G22370 3.0kb upstream 3.0kb upstream 5226   true Chr3: 7903521-7908746
AT3G22370 3.0kb upstream 3.0kb upstream 3000   false Chr3: 7903521-7906520
AT3G22370 3.0kb downstream 3.0kb downstream 5226   true Chr3: 7906521-7911746
AT3G22370 3.0kb downstream 3.0kb downstream 3000   false Chr3: 7908747-7911746


Protein Displayer


Gene Ontology Displayer

0 Pathways

Data Source: KEGG

Gene --> Ontology term

Gene --> Pathways


Plant Ontology Displayer

Bar Efp Browser Displayer

Array Expression

RNA-seq Expression


Save / Export






Cytoscape Network Displayer


Homologue Displayer

Phytomine Ortholog Displayer


Alelle Table Displayer

Stock Gene Table Displayer



11 Data Sets

Name Description Version
BAR Annotations Lookup Mapping(s) between AGI locus and Affy Probeset identifier 10/08/2013
Genome Annotation Araport11 protein-coding, non-coding and transposable element genes Araport11 (06/2016)
RNA-seq expression Measure of gene expression levels (Transcripts per Million, TPM) quantified by Salmon Araport11 (06/2016)
PubMed to gene mapping Curated associations between publications and NCBI Gene records 8/12/2016
GO Annotation from TAIR GO annotations assigned by TAIR 8/01/2016
PO Annotation from TAIR Literature-based annotations of genes to Plant Ontology (PO) terms 06/30/2015
Swiss-Prot data set High-quality, manually annotated, non-redundant protein sequence database 2016_07
Panther data set PANTHER paralogs from Arabidopsis 11.0
GeneRIF Concise phrase describing gene function and publication associated with NCBI Gene records 8/12/2016
IntAct interactions data set Curated binary and complex protein-protein interactions for Arabidopsis thaliana 8/02/2016
BioGRID interaction data set Curated set of genetic and physical interactions for Arabidopsis thaliana 3.4.139