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Gene : FLS2 A. thaliana

Gene ID  ? AT5G46330
Brief Description  Leucine-rich receptor-like protein kinase family protein  Source: Araport11 (06/2016).
Is Obsolete?  false
Computational Description  ? FLAGELLIN-SENSITIVE 2 (FLS2); FUNCTIONS IN: protein serine/threonine kinase activity, transmembrane receptor protein serine/threonine kinase activity, kinase activity, ATP binding; INVOLVED IN: in 6 processes; LOCATED IN: plasma membrane, membrane; EXPRESSED IN: 21 plant structures; EXPRESSED DURING: 10 growth stages; CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: Serine/threonine-protein kinase domain (InterPro:IPR002290), Leucine-rich repeat-containing N-terminal domain, type 2 (InterPro:IPR013210), Leucine-rich repeat (InterPro:IPR001611), Serine/threonine-protein kinase-like domain (InterPro:IPR017442), Serine/threonine-protein kinase, active site (InterPro:IPR008271), Protein kinase-like domain (InterPro:IPR011009), Protein kinase, catalytic domain (InterPro:IPR000719), Leucine-rich repeat, typical subtype (InterPro:IPR003591), Tyrosine-protein kinase, catalytic domain (InterPro:IPR020635); BEST Arabidopsis thaliana protein match is: Leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein kinase (TAIR:AT4G20140.1).  Source: TAIR, Jun 30, 2015.
Curator Summary  ? Encodes a leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine protein kinase that is expressed ubiquitously. FLS2 is involved in MAP kinase signalling relay involved in innate immunity. Essential in the perception of flagellin, a potent elicitor of the defense response. FLS2 is directed for degradation by the bacterial ubiquitin ligase AvrPtoB.  Source: TAIR, Jun 30, 2015.

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36 GeneRIFs (Gene References Into Functions)

Data Source: NCBI

Annotation PubMed Id
these results show that FLS2 constitutes the pattern-recognition receptor that determines the specificity of flagellin perception. 16377758
Species-specific differences in flagellin perception abilities to identify LeFLS2 as the flagellin receptor in Ararbidopsis. 17530419
FLS2 and BAK1 form a complex in vivo, in a specific ligand-dependent manner, within the first minutes of stimulation with flagellin 17625569
Data suggest that the reduced mobility of FLS2 after binding flg22 and its existence in monomeric form are important mechanistic features of FLS2 early signaling. 17925310
we propose that both domains of Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 AvrPtoB act together to support the virulence of PtoDC3000 in Arabidopsis through their ability to eliminate FLS2 from the cell periphery. 19062288
FLS2 tolerated mild underglycosylation occurring in stt3a but was sensitive to severe underglycosylation induced by tunicamycin treatment 20007973
Results identify the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 that is rapidly phosphorylated upon flagellin perception, depending on both FLS2 and BAK1. 20018686
Activation of FLS2 and EFR by bacterial peptide elicitors led to calcium-associated plasma membrane anion channel opening. 20113440
These results suggest a particularly important role of FLS2-mediated resistance to coronatine-deficient mutant Pst DC3000 bacteria. 20457804
Flagellin Sensitive2 (FLS2) accumulation was reduced in etr1 and ein2, indicating a requirement of ethylene signaling for FLS2 expression. 20592040
The effects of protein domain mutations on the binding properties of EFR and FLS2 are reported. 21063169
CLAVATA3 peptide (CLV3p), expressed and secreted from stem cells and functioning as a key regulator of stem-cell homeostasis in the shoot apical meristem, can trigger immune signalling and pathogen resistance via the flagellin receptor kinase FLS2 21499263
FLS2 functions beyond flagellin perception to detect other microbe-associated molecular patterns 21576467
The ligand-induced heteromerization of EFR and FLS2 with BAK1 is independent of kinase activity in planta. 21593986
study has revealed a unique regulatory circuit of direct ubiquitination and turnover of FLS2 by BAK1-mediated phosphorylation and recruitment of specific E3 ligases (PUB12,PUB13) for attenuation of immune signaling 21680842
FLS2 is a PRR, which recognizes a part of bacterial flagellin. FLS2 forms a PTI signalling complex, some components of which are guarded by R proteins. 21726371
RTNLB1 and RTNLB2 modulate FLS2 immune activity through a mechanism that involves the control of the anterograde transport of FLS2. 21949153
FLS2 triggered activation of pathogenesis-related genes in Arabidopsis. 22080602
The results indicate that ligand perception in FLS2 is a complex molecular process that involves LRRs from both the outermost and innermost LRRs of the FLS2 ectodomain. 22634763
FLS2 does not recognize CLV3 and that the shoot apical meristem is immune to bacteria independently of CLV3 perception. 22923673
The structural mechanism of the FLS2-flg22 interaction and subsequent receptor-mediated signalling. [Review] 23053766
FLS2 localizes to bona fide endosomes via two distinct endocytic trafficking routes depending on its activation status. 23085733
FLS2-BIK1 dissociation and FLS2-BAK1 association are not sufficient for FLS2-mediated defense activation, but the proposed FLS2 phosphorylation site Ser-938 and FLS2 kinase activity are needed for overall defense activation and for appropriate flg22-stimulated phosphorylation of BIK1 and homologs 23637603
these data reveals the molecular mechanisms underlying FLS2-BAK1 complex recognition of flg22 and provide insight into the immune receptor complex activation. 24114786
Degradation of FLS2 plays a role in desensitizing Arabidopsis cells to bacterial flagellin or flg22 peptide. 24220680
Our findings identify that VPS37-1, and likewise VPS28-2, regulate late FLS2 endosomal sorting and reveals that ESCRT-I is critical for flg22-activated stomatal defenses involved in plant immunity 24385929
FLS2 complexes regulate the expression of AtCLCd, further supporting a role for AtCLCd in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). 24449384
These findings highlight a direct role of the FLS2-BIK1 complex in the regulation of RbohD-mediated ROS production and stomatal defense. 24629339
Functionally redundant RXLR effectors from Phytophthora infestans act at different steps to suppress early flg22-triggered immunity. 24763622
study first mapped the phosphorylation patterns of BAK1 associated with four RLK partners (BRI1, FLS2, EFR and BIK1 24953020


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12 Flanking Regions

Flank size: from most upstream transcription start site, or most downstream transcription stop site

Region Name Flank Size Direction Length Gene Included? Chromosome Location
AT5G46330 0.5kb upstream 0.5kb upstream 4834   true Chr5: 18791075-18795908
AT5G46330 0.5kb upstream 0.5kb upstream 500   false Chr5: 18791075-18791574
AT5G46330 0.5kb downstream 0.5kb downstream 4834   true Chr5: 18791575-18796408
AT5G46330 0.5kb downstream 0.5kb downstream 500   false Chr5: 18795909-18796408
AT5G46330 1.0kb upstream 1.0kb upstream 5334   true Chr5: 18790575-18795908
AT5G46330 1.0kb upstream 1.0kb upstream 1000   false Chr5: 18790575-18791574
AT5G46330 1.0kb downstream 1.0kb downstream 5334   true Chr5: 18791575-18796908
AT5G46330 1.0kb downstream 1.0kb downstream 1000   false Chr5: 18795909-18796908
AT5G46330 3.0kb upstream 3.0kb upstream 7334   true Chr5: 18788575-18795908
AT5G46330 3.0kb upstream 3.0kb upstream 3000   false Chr5: 18788575-18791574
AT5G46330 3.0kb downstream 3.0kb downstream 7334   true Chr5: 18791575-18798908
AT5G46330 3.0kb downstream 3.0kb downstream 3000   false Chr5: 18795909-18798908


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1 Pathways

Data Source: KEGG

Identifier Name
04626 Plant-pathogen interaction

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12 Data Sets

Name Description Version
BAR Annotations Lookup Mapping(s) between AGI locus and Affy Probeset identifier 10/08/2013
Genome Annotation Araport11 protein-coding, non-coding and transposable element genes Araport11 (06/2016)
RNA-seq expression Measure of gene expression levels (Transcripts per Million, TPM) quantified by Salmon Araport11 (06/2016)
PubMed to gene mapping Curated associations between publications and NCBI Gene records 8/12/2016
GO Annotation from TIGR GO annotations assigned by TIGR Arabidopsis annotation effort 8/01/2016
PO Annotation from TAIR Literature-based annotations of genes to Plant Ontology (PO) terms 06/30/2015
Swiss-Prot data set High-quality, manually annotated, non-redundant protein sequence database 2016_07
Panther data set PANTHER paralogs from Arabidopsis 11.0
KEGG pathways data set Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions, and relations 79.0
GeneRIF Concise phrase describing gene function and publication associated with NCBI Gene records 8/12/2016
IntAct interactions data set Curated binary and complex protein-protein interactions for Arabidopsis thaliana 8/02/2016
BioGRID interaction data set Curated set of genetic and physical interactions for Arabidopsis thaliana 3.4.139